Indonesian Pre-service and In-service Science Teachers’ TPACK Level

Emayulia Sastria


This current study aimed to examine the levels of TPACK among pre-service and in-service science teachers, including several influencing factors such as gender, status, and age. Through a study of TPACK dimensions of the 211 pre-service and in-service biology teachers and science teachers were identified. The results depicted that pre-service and in-service science teachers dominate the understanding and application of non-technological dimensions. Otherwise, it was found that technological dimensions needed to be more knowledgeable for pre-service and in-service science teachers. The analysis of the variance test demonstrates significant differences were identified regarding status and age. However, no dimension was found to be significantly different regarding age level. To sum up, pre-service and in-service science teachers have different understandings and applications of ICT integration in science classrooms. Professional teaching can be developed by improving knowledge and skills of technology, pedagogy, content, and their integration.


TPACK; Pre-service Biology Teachers; Pre-service Science Teachers; In-service Biology Teachers; In-service Science Teachers

Full Text:



Abbitt, J. T. (2011). Measuring technological pedagogical content knowledge in pre-service teacher education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(4), 281–300.

Abera, B. (2014). Applying a Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework in Ethiopian English Language Teacher Education. In T. Issa, P. Isaías & P. Kommers (Eds.), Multicultural Awareness and Technology in Higher Education: Global Perspectives. IGI Global.

Aktan, O., Toraman, Ç. & Orakcı, Ş. (2020). Relationships between teachers' professional values, attitudes, and concerns about the profession in Turkey. Issues in Educational Research, 30(2), 397-419.

Barratt, M. J., Ferris, J. A., & Lenton, S. (2014). Hidden Populations, Online Purposive Sampling, and External Validity. Field Methods, 27(1), 3–21. https://doi:10.1177/1525822x14526838

Baser, D., Kopcha, T. J. & Ozden, M. Y. (2016). Developing a technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) assessment for pre-service teachers learning to teach English as a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 749-764.

Carbová, A. & Betáková, L. (2013). Using tools for measuring technological pedagogical content knowledge of English language teachers. Journal of Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and English, 6(4), 203-217.

Cetin-Berber, D. & Erdem, A.R. (2015). An investigation of Turkish pre-service teachers’ technological, pedagogical and content knowledge. Computers, 4(3),234-250

Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L. & Tsai, C.-C. (2010). Facilitating preservice teachers’ development of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK). Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), 63–73.

Cheng, K.-H. (2017). A survey of native language teachers’ technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) in Taiwan. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(7), 692–708.

Cussó-Calabuig, R., Farran, X. C., & Bosch-Capblanch, X. (2018). Effects of intensive use of computers in secondary school on gender differences in attitudes towards ICT: A systematic review. Education and Information Technologies, 23(5), 2111-2139.

Ersoy, M., Kabakçi-Yurdakul, I. & Ceylan, B. (2016). Investigating preservice teachers’ TPACK competencies through the lenses of ICT skills: An Experimental Study. Education and Biology and Science, 41(186), 119-135.

Fang & Chen (2013). "Exploring the TPACK Development of Pre-Service Science Teachers: A Longitudinal Study" di Journal of Science Education and Technology.

Hew, K. F. & Cheung, W. S. (2014). Students and instructors’ use of massive open online courses (MOOCs): Motivation and challenges. Educational Research Review, 12(1), 45-58.

Hervey, L. G. (2015). Between the notion and the act: Veteran teachers’ TPACK and practice in 1: 1 settings. In C. Angeli & N. Valanides (Eds.), Technological pedagogical content knowledge (pp. 165–189). Springer, Boston, MA.

Hockly, N. (2012). Digital literacies. ELT Journal, 66(1), 108-112.

Hofer, M. & Grandgenett, N. (2012). TPACK development in teacher education: A longitudinal study of pre-service teachers in a secondary M.A.Ed. program. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 45(1), 83–106.

Hsu, C.-Y., Tsai, M.-J., Chang, Y.-H. & Liang, J.-C. (2017). Surveying in-service teachers’ beliefs about game-based learning and perceptions of technological pedagogical and content knowledge of games. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(1), 134–143.

Hu, C. & Fyfe, V. (2010). Impact of a new curriculum on pre-service teachers. Technical, pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK). In C. H. Steel, M. J. Keppell, P. Gerbic & S. Housego (Eds.), Curriculum, technology & transformation for an unknown future. Proceedings of Ascilite Sydney 2010 (pp. 185–189).

Jang, S.-J. & Chen, K.-C. (2010). From PCK to TPACK: Developing a transformative model for pre-service Biology and Science teachers. Journal of Biology and Science Education and Technology, 19(6), 553-564.

Jang, S.-J. & Chang, Y. (2016). Exploring the technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) of Taiwanese university physics instructors. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(1), 107–122.

Jang, S.-J., & Tsai, M.-F. (2013). Exploring the TPACK of Taiwanese secondary school Biology and Science teachers using a new contextualized TPACK model. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 29(4), 566-580.

Kamil, M. J. M., & Sani, M. N. A. (2021). The challenges and initiatives of teaching Product Design’s course online during the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education, 36(1), 113–133.

Kessler, G. & Bikowski, D. (2010). Developing collaborative autonomous learning abilities in computer mediated language learning: Attention to meaning among students in wiki space. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23(1). 41-58.

Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S. & Tsai, C. C. (2010). Examining the technological pedagogical content knowledge of Singapore pre-service teachers with a large-scale survey. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(6), 563–573.

Koh, J. H. L. & Divaharan, H. (2011). Developing pre-service teachers' technology integration expertise through the TPACK-developing instructional model. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 44(1), 35–58.

Koh, J. H. L. & Chai, C. S. (2016). Seven design frames that teachers use when considering technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Computers & Education,102(1), 244-257.

Korkmaz, F. y Unsal, S. (2020). An analysis of the relationship between attitudes towards teaching and professionalism in teaching. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 22(05), 1-15.

Kurt, G., Mishra, P. & Kocoglu, Z. (2013). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Development of Turkish Pre-service Teachers of English. In R. McBride & M. Searson (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2013--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 5073-5077). New Orleans, Louisiana, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Limbong, E. (2017). Designing and Developing Supplemental Technology of PACI Model Materials through Blended Learning Methods. Celt: A Journal of Culture, English Language Teaching & Literature, 16(2), 271-304.

Lin, T.-C., Tsai, C.-C., Chai, C. S. & Lee, M.-H. (2013). Identifying Biology and Science Teachers’ Perceptions of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Biology and Science Education and Technology, 22(3), 325-336.

Liu, Q., Zhang, S. & Wang, Q. (2015). Surveying Chinese In-Service K12 Teachers’ Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 53(1), 55–74.

Li & Liu (2017). "Investigating the TPACK of In-Service Science Teachers: A Survey Study" di Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

Mustafa, M. N. (2014). The effects of gender differences in ICT application: Bridging the gap of knowledge and skills among teachers. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Biology and Sciences, 8(10), 81–86.

Nazari, N., Nafissi, Z., Estaji, M., & Marandi, S. S. (2019). Evaluating novice and experienced EFL teachers’ perceived TPACK for their professional development. Cogent Education, 6(1), 1632010.

Niess (2005). "Measuring the TPACK of Pre-Service Teachers: Development and Validation of the TPACK Questionnaire" di Journal of Research on Technology in Education .

Nushi, M. & Momeni, A. (2020). Educational technologies in textbooks: The case of Iranian EAP context. Teaching English with Technology, 20(5), 65-86.

Peeraer, J. & Van Petegem, P. (2014). Integration or transformation? Looking in the future of Information and Communication Technology in education in Vietnam. Evaluation and Program Planning, 48, 47-56.

Poonpon, K. (2021). Test Takers’ Perceptions of Design and Implementation of an Online Language Testing System at a Thai University during the COVID-19 Pandemic. PASAA, 62, 1-28.

Putri, S. E. (2019). The implementation of TPACK in teaching writing recount text in a senior high school level. RETAIN, 7(2), 156-163.

Roig-Villa, R., Mengual-Andrés, S. & Quinto-Medrano, P. (2015). Primary teachers’ technological, pedagogical and content knowledge. Comunicar, 23(45), 151–159.

Rosenberg, J. M. & Koehler, M. J. (2015). Context and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): A systematic review. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 47(3), 186-210.

Swan & Shi (2010). "The Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' TPACK and their Attitudes toward Technology Integration" di Journal of Research on Technology in Education.

Terzis, V., & Economides, A. A. (2011). Computer based assessment: Gender differences in perceptions and acceptance. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(6), 2108–2122.

Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Sang, G., Voogt, J., Fisser, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2012). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology in education: A synthesis of qualitative evidence. Computers & Education, 59(1), 134–144.

Valtonen, T., Sointu, W., Kukkonen, J., Kontkanen, S., Lambert, M. C. & Mäkitalo-Siegl, K. (2017). TPACK updated to measure pre-service teachers’ twenty-first century skills. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3), 15-31.

Villalta, M. A. y Martinic, S. (2020). Intercambios comunicativos y práctica pedagógica en el aula de los docentes en formación. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 22(21), 1-16.

Voogt, J. & McKenney, S. (2017). TPACK in teacher education: Are we preparing teachers to use technology for early literacy? Technology, Pedagogy, and Education, 26(1), 69-83.

Wulandari, E. (2019). Teacher’s Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Developing Learning Materials. Lingua Pedagogia, 1(1), 29-45.

Yau, H. K., Cheng, A. L. F. & Ho, W. M. (2012, June 21-22). Gender difference in using technology for learning: An empirical study in Hong Kong higher education. In P. Lam (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on e-Learning, 461-465. Hong Kong, China.

Zhonggen, Y., Ying, Z., Zhichun, Y. & Wentao, C. (2019). Student satisfaction, learning outcomes, and cognitive loads with a mobile learning platform. Computer Assisted Language Learning,32(4), 323-341.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 221 times
PDF - 175 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Biology Education Towards Sustainable Development

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

International Journal of Biology Education Towards Sustainable Development is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License